Korean fish sauce, or Aekjeot/Aecjeot, is made from either fermented anchovy or sand lance. It’s salty, a little sweet and provides a delicious umami flavour. Koreans use this product in making some types of Kimchi for flavour and to speed up the fermentation. It is also used to make some Korean side dishes, soups and stews. Note that Aekjeot cannot be substituted with Thai or Vietnamese fish sauce.
The purple-coloured, slightly bitter rind is used as a vegetable in Japan, with the rind stuffed with minced chicken or pork and flavoured with miso. The leaves are made into a tea-like infusion, while the vines are used to make baskets.
Also known as ikan bilis in Malaysia, dried anchovies are one of the components in the popular dish nasi lemak and are sometimes used as an ingredient in sambal. In Korean cuisine, they’re also used to make stock. Dried anchovies are even eaten on their own as a snack – it’s best to toast them in a dry pan before eating them.
Also known as green laver, aonori seaweed is a delicate, calcium-rich seaweed most commonly sold as dry flakes, which are sprinkled over noodle dishes, takoyaki octopus balls and okonomiyaki pancakes.
Also known as Chinese Chives or Garlic Chives, Asian chives are a species of onion and have a sweet, garlicky flavour. They are often found as an ingredient in dumplings and steam buns, or are used as an Asian green in soups, noodle soups and stir-fried dishes. In Korea, they’re called ‘buchu’ and are eaten as Namul (Korean vegetable side dish), made into Kimchi or cooked in Buchimgae (Korean pancake).
You might’ve seen bamboo steamers at yum cha, but they’re a useful utensil for your kitchen. Steaming is a great way to cook dishes without losing nutrients and flavour like you would by boiling. To use a bamboo steamer, simply stack them in a pot over simmering water, with the food that takes longest to cook at the bottom, and wait until your food is ready.
Belacan is a dried fermented shrimp paste used in Malay cooking. Unlike other shrimp pastes, like Kapi or Mam Ruoc, belacan is dried into a hardened block. This product provides a savoury depth to curries and pastes like Sambal Belacan. Before using it, belacan should be roasted. Cut the belacan into thin slices and toast in an oven or pan until brown – just be wary of its pungent smell!
Also known as Thai chillies, they are used extensively in Thai cooking to add heat to curries and salads, but are a popular ingredient throughout all of Southeast Asia. When using Bird’s Eye Chilli, note that the spiciest part is the seed, so it’s best to remove them when cooking for those with a lower spice tolerance.
Black sesame is often used as a garnish in both Western and Asian cuisine. However, black sesame provides a great nutty flavour in everything from ice cream to macarons, and soup to porridge. They have a slightly bitter, nutty taste and are a bit more intense than white sesame seeds. Toasting them in a dry pan helps to bring out their flavour.
Also known as Clitoria Ternatea, or bunga telang, this flower is widely used in Southeast Asia as a natural food colouring. An extract is used to make some of popular dishes in Malaysia, such as pulut tai tai and nasi kerabu. Often, blue butterfly pea flower is drunken as a tea or in colourful drinks. To use it, simply add a few dried flowers or powder in water and watch as the water turns a vibrant blue colour.
Bonito flakes are prepared through a process of smoking and drying the fillets of fish, which are then thinly shaved. This ingredient is combined with dried kelp to make dashi—a base used for broths and soups. Bonito flakes are also used to garnish dishes like takoyaki, okonomiyaki and ramen.
Brown rice is eaten as a healthier whole grain substitute to white rice. With the bran layer and cereal germ intact, brown rice has a number of nutritional benefits. While it usually requires a longer cooking time, brown rice has a nutty flavour and chewy texture that makes it a delicious alternative.
Also known as “fingered citron”, The Buddha’s hand is an unusually shaped fruit segmented into finger-like sections, It is called Buddha’s hand in Chinese (佛手柑), Japanese (仏手柑), Korean (불수감) and Vietnamese (Phật thủ). Unlike other citrus fruits, most varieties of the Buddha’s Hand fruit contain no pulp or juice. Used mostly chiefly to perfume rooms and personal items, the Buddha’s Hand is sometimes used as a flavour in desserts, savoury dishes and alcoholic beverages or candied as a sweet. The sliced, dried peel of immature fruits is also prescribed as a tonic in traditional medicine.
Candlenuts are found in many Malaysian and Indonesian recipes. They’re usually ground into a paste and used to thicken and provide a creamy texture to curries, sambals and satay sauce. Although they look like macadamia nuts, they’re more bitter, slightly toxic and have a laxative effect when eaten raw.
Known as sil-gochu in Korean, chilli threads are primarily used in Korean and Japanese cuisine to garnish. Sprinkling a pinch of bright red chilli threads on top of your dish is an easy way to make it look visually appealing. Lightly toasting chilli threads helps to bring out their flavour.
Chinese pearl barley is also known as Job’s tear. It has round and shiny grains since the bran is removed. It is used for thickening soups and stews, and also features in snacks and desserts. Chinese pearl barley is also a gluten free grain, so it’s perfect as a substitute for those who can’t eat gluten. According to Chinese medicine, this grain has cooling properties.
This utensil gets its name from the pattern of its wire mesh basket, which looks like a spider web. With a much wider surface area than a slotted spoon, the spider is perfect for picking up blanched vegetables, cooked noodles or deep fried food from hot oil or boiling water. It can also be used to skim impurities from the surface of stocks and broths.
Choy sum is a popular Asian green vegetable, used in stir fries and soups. They can also be blanched and eaten as a side dish in a meal. Choy sum will sometimes have small yellow flowers, which are safe to eat.
Cinnamon is a flavour many of you will know. In Australia, cinnamon is generally associated with sweet dishes. However, in different cuisines across Asia, cinnamon sticks are mostly used for savoury dishes, and can be found in recipes for curries or as part of the broth for Pho. As with other spices, toasting cinnamon sticks in a dry pan helps to bring out the flavour and aroma.
Used for more heavy duty work than regular knives, cleavers are an essential kitchen utensil. They can be used to cut through small bones and sinew or hard vegetables. The side of the blade is also useful for crushing ingredients like garlic. It should noted that they’re different from the similarly-shaped Chinese chef’s knife, which is used to prepare boneless meat and vegetables.
Cloves are aromatic flowers bud from clove tree. They are dark brown in color and have stick-liked shape. They have strong scent and hot taste; thus, they need to be roasted and grounded before using as food ingredients.
People are genetically predisposed to either love or hate coriander. Also known as cilantro, the herb tastes bitter and soap-like for some; others get a more pleasant tart, citrus flavour when they eat it. It is primarily used, like parsley, to garnish dishes or is eaten as a fresh salad ingredient, such as in Banh Mi.
Available both ground or whole, coriander seeds are a common spice used around the world. In Asian cuisines, they are often toasted, and then ground up with other spices to create spice mixes or for curries. They have a slight citrus flavour, and taste very different to fresh coriander leaves.
Cornflour, also known as corn starch, is used widely throughout Asian cuisine. To thicken up a sauce or gravy, simply mix a bit of cornflour and cold water in a small bowl and stir it in. Tapioca starch also does the trick. Just make sure to cook it out to remove the floury taste.
Cumin seeds are used in North China, especially in Uyghur cuisine. The seeds carry a slightly bitter, spicy, pungent flavour, and can be dry toasted to draw out a nutty dimension to the seeds.
Daikon is a type of radish with a mildly sweet, slight peppery flavour and a crunchy texture. This root vegetable is prepared in Korea as kimchi, pickled with carrot and eaten in Vietnamese Vermicelli Salad or Banh Mi, or grated and eaten with sashimi. In Chinese cuisine, the versatile vegetable is used as an ingredient in soups, stews, Radish Cake and Chai Tow Kway.
Dangmyeon are noodles made from sweet potato starch, which are almost transparent when cooked, and are consequently referred to as Sweet Potato Noodles, Glass Noodles or Starch Noodles. Sold dried, they need to be boiled or soaked in water before being used to make dishes like Japchae or Korean dumplings. They have a chewy, elastic texture compared to other noodles and are gluten free.
This Korean fermented soy bean paste is comparable to Japanese Miso, but much stronger. It has a distinct umami flavour, and is salty and slightly sour. It’s used to enhance the flavour of stews and soups, and to create the condiment ssamjang. Doenjang is a quick way to add depth and flavour to any meat or vegetables you’re cooking.
Dried chillies are a fundamental part of Sichuan cuisine, where they’re used to provide spice. Often, dried chillies will need to be rehydrated before cooking with them in a recipe. Soaking them in lukewarm water for 20-30 minutes should do the trick.
Dried shrimp are small, sun-dried shrimp that provide a umami seafood flavour to dishes. This ingredient is widely used across Chinese and Southeast Asian cuisines. Dried shrimp are used in Cantonese XO sauce, some variations of sambal, soups, salads, dumplings, congee, fried rice, or simply eaten as a snack.
Made from red seaweed, dulse is soft and chewy, but you’ll find it more commonly used in its dried, flaky form as a flavouring in salads and soups.
Edamame is a popular side dish made from using soybeans that haven’t been fully ripened. Compared to fully ripened soybeans, these beans are usually sweeter in taste. Edamame are typically blanched in hot water and then served with salt. Alternatively, in Japan, the unripened soybeans are sometimes blanched in salt water and then served without salt.
Fish sauce is a pungent, amber-coloured liquid. This condiment has an intense fishy smell, but is salty with a distinct umami flavour. A staple throughout Southeast Asia, it’s used to make dipping sauces like Thai Prik Nam Pla or Vietnamese Nuoc Cham, but can be used to marinade meat, or is simply added to a dish as a seasoning. But remember: a little bit goes a long way.
Garlic is a species of plant in the onion genus, where it is closely related to a shallot, leek or chive. It is used around the world, with the bulb of the garlic plant with its numerous fleshy sections called cloves being the most commonly used part. These cloves can be eaten raw or cooked, or used for medicinal purposes.
There are several different varieties of Ginseng, such as Korean, Vietnamese, American and South China. This root is prized for its medicinal qualities – although studies on its health benefits are inconclusive. Most accessible in its dried form, ginseng is used to infuse into soups, teas, drinks, poaching liquid and liquors, impart a bitter flavour.
Glass noodles are string-liked, transparent noodles. They are made from mung beans. They are used in many Southeast Asian dishes such as spring rolls, spicy salad, and soups.
Gochujang is a spicy red chilli paste that’s a staple in Korean cuisine. It’s usually used in Korea to marinade meat, add some spice to stews and soups, and included in dipping sauces. It has a thick, sticky texture, so is best thinned out with liquid before using.
Guk-ganjang is a byproduct of making doenjang (fermented soybean paste). Known in English as ‘soup soy sauce’, it’s most commonly used by Koreans to season soup; because it’s saltier and lighter in colour than other soy sauces, using Guk-ganjang doesn’t darken the colour of the soup. It is also used for Namul (Korean vegetable side dishes).
Growing on the coastlines of Japan, Korea and China, hijiki seaweed is a firm, nutrient-dense seaweed that resembles little black twigs when dried. It cannot be eaten raw, but when it is rehydrated in water, it will swell to three to five times its size. Hijiki has more texture and bite than delicate wakame, adding body to dishes.
Jasmine rice is a long-grain rice variety with a fragrant aroma reminiscent of pandan or popcorn, and is named after the jasmine flower due to the colour of the rice. With a slightly nutty and sweet flavour, this rice is usually served steamed and complements Thai and Chinese dishes, like curries, stir-fries, braised dishes and grilled or fried meat.
Also known as makrut lime, kaffir lime is a citrus fruit used in Southeast Asian cooking. Predominantly, the leaves are used, but the zest and juice of the fruit can be cooked with as well. You can use the leaves whole when infusing in a curry or soup, but when cooking into a dish or using for garnish, cut out the spine and finely shred. Kaffir lime leaves also keep well in the freezer.
This is the most commonly available form of edible seaweed, with kombu and wakame being the two most popular. Kelp is common in both Japanese and Korean soups or with sashimi. These are especially served fresh as a salad with some sesame oil on a bed of lettuce.
Lemongrass is used throughout Southeast Asia in a variety of regional cuisines, providing a slight citrus flavour and scent to dishes. It’s used in curries, soups and braised dishes, or to flavour drinks and teas. Bruising lemongrass helps to release its flavour.
Longjing Tea is sometimes called by its literal translated name Dragon Well tea, is a variety of pan-roasted green tea from the area of Longjing Village in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China. It is produced mostly by hand and renowned for its high quality, earning it the China Famous Tea title.
Lotus seeds are widely used in Chinese cuisine for its medicinal properties and nutritional benefits. They’re most often found in soups, made into a paste used as a filling for many Chinese pastries, or crystallized and eaten as a snack during Lunar New Year. Lotus seeds are most accessible in their dried form; it’s best to soak them in water overnight before using them.
Sushi rolling mats are made from bamboo sticks, which are woven together with cotton string. Called ‘Makisu’ in Japanese, they are used to create Makizushi – more or less the type of the sushi we find here in Australia. After using and cleaning one, ensure that it has thoroughly dried to prevent mould or bacteria, or cover in plastic wrap to reduce the cleaning effort.
Mangosteen is a sweet and slightly tart fruit with a tough purple-coloured outer rind. Similar to a mandarin, simply cut through the outer rind to access the white fruit on the inside.
Made of finely grounded green tea leaves, Matcha is prepared in a similar fashion to ground coffee. Scoop a small serving of matcha powder into a bowl and add 60-80ml of water of 70-85°C, not boiling. Stir thoroughly until no powder is left and serve. The drink is milky with smooth and subtle flavours.
Mirin, known as a Japanese cooking rice wine, is an important condiment in Japanese cooking. It’s a sweet and syrup-like liquid that is used to season and add sweetness to teriyaki, ramen or stir-fries, remove the strong smell of fish and meat, or to provide a glaze to grilled food. There are several types of mirin with varying levels of alcohol content, ranging from lower than 1% to 14%.
Mooncake are a sweet pastry eaten to celebrate the Moon Festival. Known for their intricate patterns on the outside, mooncakes are shaped in a mould. Traditionally, these mooncake moulds were wooden blocks with the pattern carved into them. Nowadays, most mooncake moulds are a plastic spring device that’s used to stamp on the pattern, resulting in a cleaner design.
Popularised in Europe during the middle ages, mugwort has been used in China, Japan and Korea for centuries. Some mugworts have also found a use in modern medicine for their anti-herpetic effect. Some dishes use mugwort, called ssuk, is still a common ingredient used in many dishes like rice cakes and soup. Mugwort has also been used to flavour beer before the introduction of hops.
Also known as moong bean or green grams, the mung bean is packed with nutrients and is used in many recipes ranging from soups, to paste made for pancakes, and gravy. Because they’re dried, if you’re not cooking them in a soup, they need to be soaked in water overnight before being cooked.
Split mung beans are used for both savoury and sweet dishes. In Korea, split mung beans are used to make savoury Bindae-tteok pancakes. In desserts, a mung bean paste is used to fill things like mooncake or glutinous rice dumplings, or boiled to make pudding or porridge. To cook split mung beans, soak them in water overnight and steam until soft.
Mung bean sprouts feature in many different cultural cuisines across Asian. They’re a versatile ingredient and can be eaten raw or cooked. In Vietnamese cuisine, they’re eaten fresh in vermicelli salad or with noodle soup (like Pho or Bun Ho Hue). However, bean sprouts are cooked into Malaysian and Peranakan stir-fried noodle dishes, or are blanched, marinated and eaten as a side dish in Korea.
Nori are dried seaweed sheets used extensively in Japanese cuisine, most often to wrap sushi and onigiri. It is also used as a garnish or eaten as a snack. Known as Gim in Korea, seaweed sheets are used to make Gimbap or toasted and eaten as a side dish or snack. It is not necessary to soak Nori sheets in water when using to make sushi rolls at home.
This beautiful root vegetable hails – as the name suggests – from the Japanese island of Okinawa. It’s rich in vitamin A, B6 & C, manganese, dietary fiber, magnesium, potassium, carotenoids, iron, protein, calcium, and naturally occurring sugars. How’s that for a super food! The benefits of eating this little purple beauty are evident in Okinawa where a large number of centurions live on the island.
Dried oysters are a delicacy in China, and are especially popular during the Lunar New Year. They have a strong seafood smell and add lots of flavour to dishes, and can be included in soups and congee, or stir-fried with vegetables. Dried oysters require soaking in water before they are cooked with.
Oyster sauce is a thick, rich sauce with a hint of sweetness made from oyster extracts, sugar, salt, water and thickened with cornflour. This sauce is used widely in Chinese cuisine in stir-fries, stir-fried noodles, marinades or simply to dress blanched vegetables.
Palm sugar is used to add sweetness to both savoury and sweet dishes in different Southeast Asian cuisines, and can be compared to brown sugar. It’s made from the boiled down sap of palm trees, which is then poured in a mould and set into a solid block. To use, cut or shave off chunks from the blocks, or melt the blocks in a microwave with some water.
Pandan leaves (or screwpine leaves) have both savoury and sweet applications in Southeast Asian cuisine. Pandan is the key ingredient in Pandan Chicken, where it’s used to wrap chicken before it’s fried, and is found in many curry recipes. Pandan paste is used to provide colour and an aromatic scent to many desserts, like vanilla is in Western cuisine.
A persimmon is the edible fruit of the Diospyros genus of trees. The ripened fruit is sweet in taste, although if consumed before having ripened, the fruit will be bitter in taste. The most commercially common type of persimmon is the Japanese persimmon, with these being used in many different forms of preparation ranging from being dried to being preserved in limewater.
The Pomelo is the largest citrus fruit, similar in appearance to a large grapefruit. It features a thick rind layer that when cut into reveals a white, red or sometimes pink flesh that can be compared in flavor to a sweet, mild grapefruit. Although the skin is largely considered bitter and inedible, it is sometimes candied or made in to marmalade.
Most often found in Asian restaurants as an appetizer, prawn crackers are also widely available for purchase around Australia in Asian grocers. Prawn crackers are made with prawn, tapioca flour and water, which is rolled out, steamed, thinly sliced and dried before being packaged. When deep-fried, these dried chips puff up and make a great snack.
Red dates are actually jujube fruit, which naturally turns red when dried. They are often candied and eaten as a snack. Red dates are also used in Korean and Chinese cuisines to make tea, juice, wines and vinegar. Red date is a key ingredient in the sweet dessert soup Ching Bo Leung or Che Sam Bo Luong.
Sichuan peppercorn isn’t related to pepper but are dried husks of an ash shrub. Remove any tiny black seeds from the husks, and use the husk either whole or grounded into powder. Prized for its mouth-numbing properties, the sichuan peppercorn itself isn’t spicy but the numbing sensation is said to reduce the sichuan chilli pepper’s heat and enhance its taste.
For those who regularly eat rice, a rice cooker is a great investment. It can be tricky to cook rice on the stove, especially when you’re feeding a family or large group. Rice cookers allow you to cook rice perfectly and consistently without burning the bottom layer. Cooking times and method will vary based on your rice cooker, and what rice and how much of it you’re cooking.
Rice noodles are made from rice. There are various kinds of rice noodles which are differentiated by the size.
Rice Vermicelli are a thin type of noodle made from the grains of rice. These noodles can be found in many different cuisines throughout Asia due to their versatility. These uses can range from being cooked in a stir-fry, to being used in soup dishes, to being incorporated in to salads.
Sake is produced by fermenting rice, and is consequently known as ‘rice wine’. However, sake’s brewing process is actually more similar to beer than wine; the rice starch is converted into sugars, which ferment into alcohol. ‘Sake’ in Japanese actually refers to all alcohol. What we know as ‘sake’ is actually nihonshu. Undiluted sake’s alcohol content is 18-20%. Sake can be enjoyed at different temperatures.
Shiitake mushrooms are originated in East Asia. Their colour can range from light brown to brown. Dried shiitake mushroom has a much stronger aroma and flavour, and should be soaked in water before cooking. Just like other mushroom varieties, they are versatile and can be used in anything from soups to stir-fry.
Rice is the staple of the Asian diet and there are many types available. Short-grain rice is especially popular in Japan, where it is cooked and used to make sushi and sake, or is simply eaten as part of a meal. Koreans also use short-grain rice for Gimbap/Kimbap. When cooked, short-grain rice tends to be chewier and stickier than longer-grain varieties.
Soba in Japanese means buckwheat. Hence, soba noodles are made of buckwheat flour or a combination of buckwheat flour and wheat flour. Soba noodles can be served as both cold and hot. Cold soba noodles are served with dipping sauce while hot soba noodles are used to make noodles soup.
Somen noodles are Japanese noodles made of wheat flour. They are very thin noodles, approximately 1.2 mm in diameter. They are usually served cold with soy sauce. This type of noodle is created by being stretched into thin strands and dried.
There are many different variants of soy sauce across the Asian continent, all made in different ways, with varying flavours, textures and uses. It can be used in stir-fries, as a dipping sauce, or to marinate meat, season dishes, or add flavour to just about anything. Soy sauce has an almost infinite number of applications and is a staple in every Asian kitchen.
Star anise has a similar intense, aromatic licorice flavour to anise seed, but with a slightly more bitter taste. It’s used extensively in Chinese cuisine to flavour meat and soup, and is one of the ingredients in five-spice powder. Star anise is a key ingredient in the recipe for Pho broth.
Also known as bitter bean and twisted cluster bean, the stink bean has flat edible beans with bright green seeds about the size and shape of almonds. The smell is often said to be similar to natural gas. Very popular in Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Laos, Southern Thailand, Burma, and north-eastern India. The beans are sold in bunches, still in the pod, or the seeds are sold in plastic bags. The beans are eaten raw or added to other dishes like nasi goreng or soups and broth.
Tofu, or bean curd, is available in a wide variety of forms. The two most common and accessible variants are silken, or soft, tofu and firm tofu. Due to its more solid texture, firm tofu is usually used in savoury dishes, often as fried bean curd, while silken tofu is also used in desserts. Both are a staple in vegetarian/vegan cooking.
Torch Ginger flowers are related to ginger, cardamom and turmeric, though they do not produce the same edible roots. Known as ‘bunga kantan’ in its home region of Malyasia, the bud is often sliced or shredded and is an indispensable ingredient in Malay cuisine where it is used as a spice. In Malaysia, Torch Ginger flowers are essential to dishes like assam laksa, a dish of noodles in a spicy fish broth and nasi kerabu, an herbed rice dish. Torch Ginger flowers are typically eaten raw, sliced or chopped and served as a garnish.
Small, black to brown earthenware vessel used for various jjigae (stew), gukbap (soup with rice), or other boiled dishes in Korean cuisine. As a ttukbaegi retains heat and does not cool off as soon as removed from the stove, stews and soups cooked and served in the ttukbaegi arrives bubbling hot on the table and stays warm longer.
Turmeric on its own has a pungent, earthy scent and a slightly bitter taste reminiscent of mustard. While this might not sound appealing, turmeric, either fresh or in its dried powder form, is an essential ingredient in spice mixes for curries throughout Southeast Asia. It also used to impart a vibrant yellow colour in dishes like Vietnamese Banh Xeo or Banh Khot.
Wasabi or Japanese horseradish is a plant native to the mountain river valleys of Japan. The stems are typically grated into a fine paste that is used as a condiment for sushi or other Japanese dishes. The paste itself has a characteristically strong, spicy flavor that is similar to that of mustard or horseradish.
Although they’re mainly seen on the top of bagels or burger buns, white sesame seeds are a versatile ingredient. They’re stirred through Japanese salads, sprinkled over Chinese dishes and are used in many Vietnamese desserts. Toasting sesame seeds in a dry pan helps to draw out their nutty flavour. Sesame oil too is used throughout Asia for frying, stir frying, marinades, dressings and sauces.
Also known as the Goa bean, four-angled bean, four-cornered bean, Manila bean, and dragon bean, the winged is a tropical legume plant native to New Guinea. The bean is nutrient-rich, and all parts of the plant are edible. Leaves can be eaten like spinach, flowers can be used in salads, tubers can be eaten raw or cooked, seeds can be used in similar ways as the soybean. You’ll often see it whole cooked in stir-fries and rice dishes, or seeded and the beans are eaten raw or added to soups and broths.
A Yanagiba is a long and thin Japanese type of knife that is commonly used in the preparation of sashimi and nigiri sushi. It is designed to allow for the ease of cutting, with an emphasis on cutting through the meat in a single stroke to avoid the occurrence of zigzags forming on the surface of the meat.